Year 10 2016

Freedom of Speech


The History of the Racial Discrimination Act - 18C

Discussion and debate on 18C

George Brandis defense 'right to be a bigot' amid Government plan to amend Racial Discrimination Act

Andrew Bolt: Freedom of Speech in Australia - Speech made by Dr David Kemp

Freedom of speech the Bernardi way

Transcript of the Hon. Tony Abbott MP - Memorial Lecture for Father Gregory Jordan

Section 18C reform is a debate for parliament, not Coalition MPs

Sen. Pauline Hanson (One Nation-Qld) – Maiden Speech

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Tim Wilson MP - Freedom of Speech and 18C - Sky News Jones & Co 2016-08-30

Corey Bernardi change section 18C of the Racial Discrimination Act

Mark Latham on Refugee Activists , 18C and the ABC!

Senator David Leyonhjelm on 18C and freedom of speech

Fr Rod Doha Address - 2016 Doha Conference on Interfaith Dialogue

Bill Leak Cartoon on Indigenous Australians

The Australian, August 2016
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Indigenous Affairs Minister Nigel Scullion condemns 'racist' Bill Leak cartoon

The Australian slammed for 'racist' Bill Leak cartoon

The Feed Parody "Talking Prejudice"

Warning - there is some swearing at the very end of this video

Oral Presentation**

Langauge Analysis Essay Sentence Starters

Annotating the material

  • What is the issue?
  • What is the writer’s contention?
  • What type of text is it and how can you tell?
  • What seems to be the writers overall purpose? What point of view is put forward? What ideas or arguments are put forth in support of this view (Identify arguments used to support the contention)?
  • Who is the target audience/s?
  • How does the writer want to position the audience on this issue?
  • What persuasive language strategies are predominant? Why might these strategies have been chosen?
  • How do these persuasive strategies reflect and support the writer’s contention and/or intention?

Homework Task

  • Scrapbook of newspaper articles
  • Students are to use a separate notebook and begin collecting articles sourced from various publications.
  • Collect a variety of articles each week (editorial, opinion piece, letter to the editor, political cartoon, feature, world news)
  • Students should write a comment / statement in response to the article they collect. Why have they chosen certain article or news topics?
  • The scrapbooks will be collected once a week to monitor that students are completing the task.


Credible online sources of news and opinion

The Conversation


Using Language To Persuade - 2014mic.jpg

  • Assessment
  • Issues Resources
  • Selecting and connecting with the issue
  • Issues worksheet
  • What to do while researching an issue for the speech
    How to develop a reasoned point of view
  • The Art of Persuasion: Rhetoric and the Ancient Greeks
  • Expressive, engaging and effective delivery
  • Famous speeches
  • Sample Persuasive Speech
  • Public speaking: useful links

Be able to defend your arguments in a rational way.
Otherwise, all you have is an opinion.- Marilyn vos Savant


In order to satisfy the Oral component of this outcome students must:
  • Demonstrate a knowledge of the issue being presented
  • Demonstrate a clear viewpoint, with appropriate evidence used to support arguments
  • Effectively integrate persuasive devices in the support of a contention
  • Effectively use oral language conventions such as variance in pace, pitch, tone and volume
  • Effectively engage and interact with the audience
  • Coherent and logical organisation of ideas and structure of speech

Current Issues of Social Relevance

Some issues of social relevance (Sept/Oct 2014)
  1. Celebrity photo hack
  2. Surrogate mothers
  3. Funding for religious education in schools
  4. Refugee/immigration policy in Australia
  5. ‘Team Australia’
  6. Australian involvement in overseas conflicts
-Military involvement
-Financial aid

Selecting and connecting with the issue

  • Why is this an issue of social relevance?
  • Why is it important for people to express opinions about this issue?
  • What are the most contentious points about this issue?
  • Why do I care about this issue?
  • What is my strongest opinion about this issue?
  • Why do I hold this opinion?
  • What do I need to know about this issue in order to constuct a reasoned line of argument to support my opinion?

What to do while researching and preparing the speech

Consider the following, making notes for each as you research and prepare your speech:

1. Background to this issue
  • Triggering event, incident, problem, change
  • Any historical precedent or circumstances related to this issue

2. Stakeholders
  • Individuals and groups involved
  • Their investment in this issue

3. Perspectives, opinions and arguments
  • What are people arguing about?
  • What is the nature of the debate/discussion? What kinds of arguments are offered? What kind of language is used when presenting these arguments?

4. Media response to this issue
  • What media outlets are featuring this issue?
  • Which journalists are writing about it?
  • How balanced is media reportage on this issue? To what extent is media reportage selective or inflammatory?

5. Broader frameworks, related issues and wider implications
  • What impact might this issue have on other aspects of society?
  • What other problems, concerns or circumstances might impact on this issue?

Broader frameworks and related areas of society include:

Social Justice
Equal Opportunity
Human Rights

Credible online sources of news and opinion

The Conversation

How to develop a reasoned point of view

  1. Research and think carefully about an issue to reach your own informed point of view
  2. State your point of view clearly in a main contention (make sure you are aware of your reasons for holding this point of view)
  3. Collect all the points and arguments (aim to work with 3-5 credible media texts for your final sources of information/perspectives)
  4. Decide on your strongest points, your reasons and your main arguments
  5. Collect support for these points (these can include evidence, reasons, facts, examples, causes with explanations and so on). Make sure you acknowledge your sources of evidence as necessary within the speech.
  6. Think about how others might respond or react to your points and how you might counter their opposition. This consideration helps to make your case more convincing (but you should not explicitly include this in your speech as a rebuttal). Be fair and reasonable in your treatment of opposing perspectives.
  7. Use logically structured arguments so that the audience can see the reasoning, facts and evidence behind the point of view. Make sure that you signpost these arguments at the beginning of your speech to make it easier for your audience to follow them.
  8. Select and use persuasive strategies that are appropriate for your arguments and your audience.
  9. Decide on the tone you will employ (the personal feelings or attitude you intend to display about this issue). Avoid being defamatory or abusive (there can be a fine line between criticism of an idea or perspective and denigration of a person or group)
  10. Check your contention again to see whether you have established its validity through your arguments.

The Art of Persuasion

Rhetoric and the Ancient Greeks

‘Rhetoric is the art of ruling the minds of men’ (Plato)
  • Emotional (Pathos)
-interest based on feelings
-make the audience feel the same way
  • Logical (Logos)
-interest based on what makes sense
-use good reasons and evidence
  • Ethical (Ethos)
-interest based on what is good or right
-establish credibility with the audience

Aristotle believed that the principal function of persuasion was to communicate one’s point of view, and that knowledge and wisdom could only be attained through logic and reason. In that regard, Aristotle identified three means of persuasion, which he described in the second chapter of On Rhetoric, where he said that persuasion is dependent on three facets:
1. The truth and logical validity of what is being argued.
2. The speaker’s success in conveying to the audience a perception that he or she can be trusted.
3. The emotions that a speaker is able to awaken in an audience to accept the views advanced and act in harmony with them.

Nowadays, modern rhetoricians use terms derived from Aristotle to refer to these three means of persuasion, even though these terms have acquired somewhat broader definitions:
Taken from

Expressive, engaging and effective delivery

Be aware of your audience
Consider how to position them to have an emotional or intellectual response/potentially shift their perspective on your issue.
  • Pause (intentional gaps in your speech can add meaning and emphasis. It is sometimes vital to pause before and after important points to ensure your message is received. Pauses that are too lengthy can suggest a lack of familiarity with the material)
  • Pace (be aware of your speed of delivery; too fast and you will risk losing emphasis and the audience’s attention; too slow and you will sound dull)
  • Pitch (variation of volume, intonation to maintain interest and add emphasis, effective tonality and use of inflection)
  • Non-verbal elements (mannerisms, gestures, gesticulation, facial expressions)

Famous and Effective Speeches

Senator Robert Ludlum (3rd March 2014)

Great Speeches of Our Time

Martin Luther King

The 50th anniversary of Martin Luther King's great dream: It’s probably the most famous – and arguably the most loved – speech of modern times. In August 1963, the Rev. Dr. Martin Luther King declared he had a dream of racial equality for America. Dr King was by profession and passion a preacher, and his speech has been bracketed with Christ’s Sermon on the Mount. For King, those words were not just a way to achieve justice for African-Americans. His mission was to redeem a nation that had lost its religious promise. One of America's leading experts on civil rights history and the critical role of the African-American churches, the Rev Professor Cheryl Townsend Gilkes, talks to Andrew West about Dr King's quest to redeem a nation.

JFK Inaugural Presidential Speech 1961

Transcript of JFK speech

Transcript of 'Come September'

Severn Suzuki speaking to the UN 1992

Sample Persuasive Speech

Public Speaking: Useful Links

VCAA Plain English Speaking Award

1500 + talks to stir your curiosity